Listen to the second podcast episode with leading moth observation contributor Rachit Singh, as a part of our interview series leading up to the National Moth Week on July 22

Featured Document

Browse Documents

3 documents found tagged ambophily [X]
  • Title
    Reproductive ecology of Syzygium alternifolium (Myrtaceae), an endemic and endangered tropical tree species in the southern Eastern Ghats of India
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Syzygium alternifolium is a semi-evergreen mass-flowering tree species of dry deciduous forest in the southern Eastern Ghats of India. It is a mass bloomer with flowering during dry season. The floral traits suggest a mixed pollination syndrome involving entomophily and anemophily together called as ambophily. Further, the floral traits suggest generalist pollination system adapted for a guild of pollinating insects. The plant is self-incompatible and obligate out-crosser. The flowers are many-ovuled but only a single ovule forms seed and hence, fruit and seed set rates are the same. Natural fruit set stands at 11%. Bud infestation by a moth, flower predation by the beetle, Popillia impressipyga and bud and flower mounds significantly limit fruit set rate. The ability of the plant to repopulate itself is limited by the collection of fruits by locals due to their edible nature, short viability of seeds, high seedling mortality due to water stress, nutrient deficiency and erratic rainfall or interval of drought within the rainy season. Therefore, S. alternifolium is struggling to populate itself under various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Further studies should focus on how to assist the plant to increase its population size in its natural area taking into account the information provided in this paper.
    Attribution
    Raju A.J.S., Krishna J.R., Chandra P.H. (2014). Journal of Threatened Taxa 9(6) pp. 6153-6171; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o3768.6153-71
  • Title
    Pollination ecology of the Gray Nicker Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae) a mangrove associate at Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Caesalpinia crista L., commanly known as Gray Nicker, is an oligohaline mangrove associate confined to landward marginal areas of the Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India. The flowering occurs during the wet season from June to November. The flowers are hermaphroditic, self-compatible and exhibit a mixed breeding system. The floral characteristics that constitute melittophilous pollination syndrome include diurnal anthesis, slight fragrance, zygomorphy, yellow petals, with a flag petal displaying a conspicuous nectar guide, and the presence of nectar with a high sugar concentration. Extra-floral nectar along the rachis is an additional attractant and is easily perceivable by bees. The plant is pollinated almost exclusively by bees, especially carpenter bees. The floral characteristics such as free petals, fully exposed stamens with dry and powdery pollen grains and hairy stigma facilitate anemophily which is effective due to high winds during the rainy season. The prolific growth and near synchronous flowering at population level contribute to pollen availability in huge quantities and enable anemophily as an effective mode of pollination. The functionality of melittophily and anemophily together constitutes ambophily. Hand-pollination experiments indicated that the plant is principally out-crossing. The natural fruit set does not exceed 10%; this lowest percentage could be partly due to flower-feeding by the beetle, Mylabris phalerata. The fruits are indehiscent, 1-seeded, which are buoyant and are not dispersed far away from the parental sites. The viable seeds produce new plants in the vicinity of parental plants during the rainy season. This plant builds up its population as small patches or in pure stands and hence is important in building landward mangrove cover.
    Attribution
    Raju P.S., Raju A.J.S.. (2014). Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(6) pp. 6345-6354; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o3754.6345-54
  • Title
    Reproductive ecology of Shorea roxburghii G. Don (Dipterocarpaceae), an Endangered semievergreen species tree of peninsular India
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Shorea roxburghii is an Endangered semievergreen tree species restricted to peninsular India in the Eastern Ghats. Leaf shedding and leaf flushing are annual events while flowering is not annual, but when it does flower, in March, it shows massive blooming. Massive blooming, drooping inflorescence with pendulous flowers, ample pollen production, gradual pollen release as a function of anther appendage and aerodynamic pollen grains - all suggest anemophily. The characteristics of nectar secretion, hexose-rich sugars and amino acids in nectar are additional adaptations for entomophily. The plant is functionally self-incompatible, obligately outcrossing and ambophilous. The natural fruit set does not exceed 15% despite the plant being ambophilous. Scarabaeid beetle by causing flower damage and bruchid beetle by using buds, flowers and fruits for breeding greatly affect fruit set rate and thus the success of sexual reproduction in this plant species is also affected. Seeds are non-dormant, the embryo is chlorophyllous while the fruits are on the plant. Healthy seeds germinate as soon as they reach the forest floor but their establishment is seemingly affected by resource constraints due to the rocky habitat. The study suggests that non-annual flowering, massive flowering for a short period, high bud/flower and fruit infestation rate, absence of seed dormancy and rocky habitat could attribute to the endangered status of S. roxburghii.
    Attribution
    Raju A.J.S., Ramana K.V., Chandra P.H. (2011). Journal of Threatened Taxa 9(3) pp. 2061-2070; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o2763.2061-70