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4 documents found tagged anemochory [X]
  • Title
    Monoecy, anemophily, anemochory and regeneration ecology of Hildegardia populifolia (Roxb.) Schott. and Endl. (Malvaceae), an economically important endemic and endangered dry deciduous tree species of southern Eastern Ghats, India
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Hildegardia populifolia is a critically endangered tree species. All phenological events—leaf flushing, shedding, flowering, fruit dispersal occur one after the other during the dry season. It is morphologically andromonoecious but functionally monoecious. It produces a strikingly male-biased male and bisexual flower ratio; it is self-incompatible and obligately outcrossing. The flowers are nectariferous and the nectar has hexose-rich sugars, some essential and non-essential amino acids. Trigona bee and Rhynchium wasp were the exclusive foragers, though their foraging activity does not promote cross-pollination. The male flower number, the pollen output, the pollen characteristics and the placement of anthers on the top of androphore conform to anemophily. The natural fruit set does not exceed 5%. The fruit is 5-follicled with one or two seeds. The low fruit set is compensated by the production of more 2-seeded follicles. Fruit characteristics such as wing-like follicles, membranous follicle sheath and being very light weight characterize anemochory. Seeds with a hard coat do not germinate readily during the rainy season and their germination depends on the soil chemicals and nutrient environment. The soil is deficient in nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous. Partly burned seeds due to natural or human-caused fires germinate quickly in water saturated soil. The study suggests that seed germination and seedling growth rates are regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic factors along with natural and anthropogenic fires. We recommend that seedlings should be raised in nurseries and then transferred to natural habitats to build up the population.
    Attribution
    Raju A.J.S., Chandra P.H., Krishna J.R. (2014). Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(6) pp. 5434-5446; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o3665.5434-46
  • Title
    Entomophily, ornithophily and anemochory in the self-incompatible Boswellia ovalifoliolata Bal. & Henry (Burseraceae), an endemic and endangered medicinally important tree species
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Boswellia ovalifoliolata (Burseraceae) is a narrow endemic and endangered deciduous tree species. Its flowering, fruiting and seed dispersal events occur in a leafless state during the dry season. The flowers are small, bisexual, mildly odoriferous and actinomorphic; weakly protandrous but strictly self-incompatible. While insects and sunbirds pollinate the flowers, floral characteristics suggest that entomophily is the principal mode. Both bud and flower feeding by a weevil and flower and fruit feeding by the Palm Squirrel have been found to affect the success of sexual reproduction. The Garden Lizard serves as a predator of pollinating insects, especially bees and wasps, thus influencing pollination of this tree species. Fruit set in open pollination is below 10%, rising to 34% in manual cross-pollination. Limitation of cross-pollination, space constraints for seed production from all flower ovules and availability of limited resources in rocky, dry litter of the forest floor appear to constrain higher fruit set. Mature fruits dehisce and disseminate their lightweight, papery winged seeds with the aid of wind. The study site being windy provides the necessary driving force for effective dispersal of seeds away from parent trees. Seed germination occurs following rainfall but further growth depends on soil water and nutritional status. The success rate of seedling recruitment is highly limited, and it could be due to nutrient-poor soil and water stress resulting from dry spells during the rainy season.
    Attribution
    Raju A.J.S., Lakshmi P.V., Ramana K.V., Chandra P.H. (2012). Journal of Threatened Taxa 7(4) pp. 2673-2684; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o2964.2673-84
  • Title
    Reproductive ecology of Shorea roxburghii G. Don (Dipterocarpaceae), an Endangered semievergreen species tree of peninsular India
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Shorea roxburghii is an Endangered semievergreen tree species restricted to peninsular India in the Eastern Ghats. Leaf shedding and leaf flushing are annual events while flowering is not annual, but when it does flower, in March, it shows massive blooming. Massive blooming, drooping inflorescence with pendulous flowers, ample pollen production, gradual pollen release as a function of anther appendage and aerodynamic pollen grains - all suggest anemophily. The characteristics of nectar secretion, hexose-rich sugars and amino acids in nectar are additional adaptations for entomophily. The plant is functionally self-incompatible, obligately outcrossing and ambophilous. The natural fruit set does not exceed 15% despite the plant being ambophilous. Scarabaeid beetle by causing flower damage and bruchid beetle by using buds, flowers and fruits for breeding greatly affect fruit set rate and thus the success of sexual reproduction in this plant species is also affected. Seeds are non-dormant, the embryo is chlorophyllous while the fruits are on the plant. Healthy seeds germinate as soon as they reach the forest floor but their establishment is seemingly affected by resource constraints due to the rocky habitat. The study suggests that non-annual flowering, massive flowering for a short period, high bud/flower and fruit infestation rate, absence of seed dormancy and rocky habitat could attribute to the endangered status of S. roxburghii.
    Attribution
    Raju A.J.S., Ramana K.V., Chandra P.H. (2011). Journal of Threatened Taxa 9(3) pp. 2061-2070; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o2763.2061-70
  • Title
    Pollination and seedling ecology of Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn. (Periplocaceae), a commercially important, endemic and endangered species
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Decalepis hamiltonii is a woody climber and annual bloomer. The flowers are characterized by nectariferous coralline corona, gynostegium and pollinia containing tetrads. The floral features such as greenish white corolla, mild fragrance, flat-shape for easy access to floral rewards, and ovary protection from the biting mouthparts of the pollinator make up cantharophilous pollination syndrome. Brachinus beetle is the principal pollinator. Thrips use floral buds to raise their offspring; they also effect pollination while collecting nectar; but they are important largely for self-pollination due to their short distance flying ability. The plant is a self-incompatible, obligate outcrosser and is substantiated by 2% natural fruit set, but each fruit produces numerous seeds. Fruits dehisce during the dry season and seed dispersal is by wind. Seeds germinate as soon as they fall in a favourable place, but only a small percentage establish seedlings. Over-exploitation, bottlenecks in sexual reproduction and seedling establishment may contribute to the endangered status of D. hamiltonii.
    Attribution
    Raju A.J.S., Ramana K.V. (2009). Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(1) pp. 497-506; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o2168.497-506