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4 documents found tagged anemophily [X]
  • Title
    On the reproductive ecology of Suaeda maritima, S. monoica and S. nudiflora (Chenopodiaceae)

    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Floral biology, sexual system, breeding system, pollinators, fruiting and seed dispersal aspects of three Suaeda species, S. maritima, S. monoica and S. nudiflora (Chenopodiaceae) were studied. The flowers of all the three species are hermaphroditic, dichogamous, strongly protogynous with a pistillage phase during the mature bud stage and staminate phase following anthesis, self-compatible exhibiting mixed breeding systems with special adaptation for cross-pollination; but both self- and cross-pollination are vector-dependent. In all, the flowers display a mix of anemophilous and entomophilous traits. Anemophily is effective in high salt marshes while water currents bring about pollination in low salt marshes; insects pollinate the flowers while collecting the forage from pistillate and staminate phase flowers. In these species, the whole plant breaks off and rolls on the floor while shedding its diaspores. Fruits with seeds intact and/or seeds shed from fruits float on water due to their ability for buoyancy. The fruits and seeds thus disperse, settle in the entire extent of salt marshes or coastal areas and germinate in mid-summer season when salinity is very high in high and low salt marshes.
    Attribution
    A.J. Solomon Raju & Rajendra Kumar, Journal of Threatened Taxa, Vol 8, No 6 (2016); pp. 8860–8876 http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/jott.2275.8.6.8860-8876
  • Title
    Monoecy, anemophily, anemochory and regeneration ecology of Hildegardia populifolia (Roxb.) Schott. and Endl. (Malvaceae), an economically important endemic and endangered dry deciduous tree species of southern Eastern Ghats, India
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Hildegardia populifolia is a critically endangered tree species. All phenological events—leaf flushing, shedding, flowering, fruit dispersal occur one after the other during the dry season. It is morphologically andromonoecious but functionally monoecious. It produces a strikingly male-biased male and bisexual flower ratio; it is self-incompatible and obligately outcrossing. The flowers are nectariferous and the nectar has hexose-rich sugars, some essential and non-essential amino acids. Trigona bee and Rhynchium wasp were the exclusive foragers, though their foraging activity does not promote cross-pollination. The male flower number, the pollen output, the pollen characteristics and the placement of anthers on the top of androphore conform to anemophily. The natural fruit set does not exceed 5%. The fruit is 5-follicled with one or two seeds. The low fruit set is compensated by the production of more 2-seeded follicles. Fruit characteristics such as wing-like follicles, membranous follicle sheath and being very light weight characterize anemochory. Seeds with a hard coat do not germinate readily during the rainy season and their germination depends on the soil chemicals and nutrient environment. The soil is deficient in nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous. Partly burned seeds due to natural or human-caused fires germinate quickly in water saturated soil. The study suggests that seed germination and seedling growth rates are regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic factors along with natural and anthropogenic fires. We recommend that seedlings should be raised in nurseries and then transferred to natural habitats to build up the population.
    Attribution
    Raju A.J.S., Chandra P.H., Krishna J.R. (2014). Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(6) pp. 5434-5446; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o3665.5434-46
  • Title
    Pollination ecology of Chengam Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea C.F. Gaertn. (Magnoliopsida: Rubiales: Rubiaceae), a non-viviparous evergreen tree species
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea C.F. Gaertn. or Chengam is a non-viviparous evergreen tree species. The flowers are bisexual, self-compatible, self-pollinating, temporally dioecious and exhibit a mixed breeding system.  The plant is both melittophilous and anemophilous at the study area.  Natural fruit set is 100% but seeds are non-viable which might be due to a genetic disorder. 
    Attribution
    Raju A.J. Solomon, Rajesh B. (2014). Journal of Threatened Taxa 14(6) pp. 6668-6676; doi:10.11609/jott.1717.6668-6676
  • Title
    Taxonomic aspects and coning ecology of Cycas circinalis L. (Cycadales: Cycadaceae), a threatened species of India
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Cycas circinalis is Red Listed Endangered species. It is a tropical dry deciduous dioecious shrub confined to the Western Ghats and its adjacent regions. It reproduces asexually and sexually. Asexual mode exists in male plants only but further studies are suggested for confirmation. In the asexual mode, bulbils arise as offshoots of the stem; they germinate either on the same plant to produce additional shoots or fall off to germinate and produce new plants. Sexual reproduction involves cone and seed production. The sex of the plant is identifiable only during the coning phase. The plant is typically anemophilous and it is highly effective for optimal seed set. The cones of both sexes show weak thermogenesis and odour production during maturation process and these two processes have absolutely no role in pollination. Coning and leaf flushing events occur in quick succession in both sexes. Seed set is optimal and the seed coat is four-layered consisting of sarcotesta, sclerotesta, a thick layer of spongy tissue and a thin membranous jacket enclosing the female gametophyte tissue; the spongy layer is important to cause floatation in water for seed dispersal which occurs during the rainy season.
    Attribution
    Raju A.J.S., Rao N.G. (2011). Journal of Threatened Taxa 1(3) pp. 1425-1431; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o2372.1425-31