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8 documents found tagged asian elephant [X]
  • Title
    An attitude assessment of human-elephant conflict in a critical wildlife corridor within the Terai Arc Landscape, India
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    This study entails an attitude assessment of the local people living at Mankanthpur Village, one of the bottlenecks in the Bailparao-Kotabagh corridor, Terai West Forest Division, on the issue of elephant conservation, human-(wildlife) elephant conflict, and the measures to mitigate it.  Data was collected through a questionnaire survey and several group discussions among the villagers.  The frequency of crop raids and group size of elephants were calculated.  Sixty-two crop raids took place during the study period (February–April 2010), and a mean sighting of 1.08 elephants per day was recorded.  Data from the survey reflects that about 3.53ha of crop land was damaged by the elephants during the survey period.  The people residing on the fringes of the park and in the villages along the Bailparao-Kotabagh Corridor were surveyed about the conflict impact.  Survey results indicate that the most effective management measures used were a combination of loud noise and scaring away elephants using fire.  Local peoples’ views regarding the current status of elephant raids and conservation were also documented.  Peoples’ reaction to compensation schemes was studied; 89% of the respondents feel an effective approach to compensation is a way to reduce sufferings due to conflict with wildlife.  Attempts to reduce the conflict by forming local elephant control teams and enclosing the affected village with a tall cemented wall are under trial.  The underlying assumption in this study is that if damage severely affects the livelihood of local communities, getting their active support, which is essential for conservation, will be difficult. 
    Attribution
    Jasmine Biba, Ghose Dipankar, Das Sanjay Keshari (2015). Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(7) pp. 6843-6852; doi:10.11609/jott.1846.6843-6852
  • Title
    Mortality records (1979–2011) shed light on threats to Asian Elephants Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Elephantidae) in Nilgiris, southern India
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    We compiled records of 291 elephant deaths over a 33-year period (1979–2011) from the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve and the reserved forests of Nilgiri North and South divisions of southern India from the databases of the Tamil Nadu Forest Department, the Wildlife Protection Society of India and the Nilgiri Wildlife and Environment Association.  We tested the null hypothesis that the causes of elephant deaths would not differ with time, by gender and with level of protection.  We classified records by gender and age: adults (≥15 years), sub adults (5–15 years), juveniles (>1–1–<5) and 22 calves (≤ 1). MTR had the maximum records (148) followed by NND (138) and NSD (4).  The median age of death was 20 years for adult males and 30 years for adult females.  Mean survival time for adult males was 22.45 years, and 31.84 for females.  Poaching was responsible for the majority of deaths (40%), particularly of male elephants (82%), and unknown causes (31%) for the majority of female deaths (66%).  Human-caused deaths, which included poaching and some accidents, averaged 72% between 1979 and 2000 and decreased to 22% during 2001–2011. Deaths due to unknown causes and diseases increased from 28% in 1979-1989 to 69% in 2001–2011.  Relative to estimated population size, deaths attributed to poaching was higher in NND (47%) than in MTR (34%).  The causes of death differed by region. In conclusion, the elephant population in the Nilgiris is at risk and needs stringent protection; the mortality database should be systematised; forensic capabilities upgraded, and detection of carcasses improved.  
    Attribution
    Davidar Priya, Rosset Clément, Mammen Pratheesh Chacko, Puyravaud Jean Philippe, Srivastava Rajeev, Wright Belinda (2015). Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7) pp. 7436-7442; doi:10.11609/jott.2111.7436-7442
  • Title
    Coprophagy by Barking Deer Muntiacus vaginalis (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae) in Buxa Tiger Reserve, West Bengal, India
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    A Barking Deer was seen feeding on Asian Elephant’s dung containing partly digested fruits of Dillenia indica at Buxa Tiger Reserve, West Bengal. This case of coprophagy appears to be opportunistic frugivore selection by the deer. 
    Attribution
    Ranade Sachin P., Prakash Vibhu (2015). Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(7) pp. 7825-7826; doi:10.11609/jott.2328.7825-7826
  • Title
    CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Frugivory and seed dispersal by the Asian Elephant Elephas maximus in the tropical forests of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, southern India
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Seed dispersal plays a potential role in plant species demographic processes. Elephants are important seed-dispersing agents. We studied frugivory and seed dispersal by Asian Elephants in the tropical deciduous and thorn forests of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, southern India. We determined fruit consumption based on the presence of seeds and fruit remnants in elephant dung piles. In total, we identified seeds of eight plant species belonging to seven families in 16% out of 455 dung piles examined between 1991 and 2004. Coinciding with a peak fruiting season in the study area, seeds and other fruit parts appeared in the dung piles significantly more frequently during the dry season than in the wet seasons (southwest and northeast monsoons). Owing to differences in fruit species abundance in different habitats, there was more evidence of fruit consumption in the dry thorn than in the dry and moist deciduous forests. This corresponds with insufficient grass availability in thorn forests during the dry season and an increase in browse consumption as a supplementary diet. Seeds of Tamarindus indica and Acacia intsia were found in elephant dung more frequently than other species. Seed and fruit remnants were found in almost an equal number of dung piles of both bulls and herds.
    Attribution
    Baskaran N., Desai A.A. (2013). Journal of Threatened Taxa 14(5) pp. 4893-4897; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o2848.4893-7
  • Title
    CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: An overview of Asian Elephants in the Western Ghats, southern India: implications for the conservation of Western Ghats ecology
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    The Western Ghats region is a global biodiversity hotspot and the source of all the major rivers of peninsular India. The conservation of this region is important for the biodiversity it harbours, and for ecological functions that include climate stability, erosion control, clean water and air, which are essential to safeguard economic growth, social stability and quality of life for the people of peninsular India. Possessing a unique diversity in topography, climate, vegetation, faunal communities, endemism and human communities, the Western Ghats is also known for its spectacular assemblage of larger mammals, including 25% of the global population of Asian Elephants. There are four major landscapes in the Western Ghats: (1) Uttara Kannada, (2) Brahmagiri-Nilgiris, (3) Anamalai-Nelliyampathy-High Range, and (4) Periyar-Agasthyamalai, spread across 30,000km2, harbouring a minimum 10,000 elephants in six different populations with signs of an increasing trend in some populations. The second landscape (Brahmagiri-Nilgiris) with over 50% of the Ghats elephant population, along with its contiguity to the Eastern Ghats elephant landscape, forms the single largest global population of Asian Elephants. However, major threats to the long-term conservation of the elephant include further fragmentation of habitat, continued poaching of bulls for ivory, and escalation in human-elephant conflicts resulting in public antagonism toward the species. The goals of management should thus be to: (1) consolidate habitats and preserve corridors to avoid further fragmentation; (2) take steps through integrated land use planning at the landscape level to reduce human-elephant conflicts; and (3) build up a demographically and genetically viable elephant population by protecting the tusked males from ivory poaching. Being a wide-ranging umbrella species, ensuring the long-term conservation of Asian Elephants in the Ghats implies protecting its biodiversity and ecological functions that also safeguard the livelihood of several million people.
    Attribution
    Baskaran N. (2013). Journal of Threatened Taxa 14(5) pp. 4854-4870; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o3634.4854-70
  • Title
    Elephant Elephas maximus Linnaeus (Proboscidea: Elephantidae) migration paths in the Nilgiri Hills, India in the late 1970s
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    The study presented was carried out in 1978 with the support of the Asian Elephant Specialist Group (AsESG) of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Species Survival Commission (SSC). Its objective was to investigate the impediments to elephant movement in the Nilgiri Hills, in the Western Ghats of India, in an attempt to suggest positive steps to encourage movement through the provision of corridors. The report was left unpublished, but given its importance as a reference document for the conservation of the Asian elephant in the Nilgiris, in 2011 the last two authors decided to publish it. The process of habitat fragmentation has been going on ever since man started agriculture. But this problem has, of late, become much more acute due to mounting pressure on land. The corridor concept applied to wildlife is the provision of a free and, as far as possible, unimpeded way for the passage of wild animals between two wildlife zones. A corridor’s more important function is to prevent wild animals from getting isolated in small pocket-like islands. Maintaining elephant habitat connectivity in and around the Nilgiris rests upon the understanding that elephant populations of the several protected areas of the now Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve must remain active. The first author surveyed the Nilgiris on foot and on elephant back for several months in 1978. It was concluded that four areas (the Nilgiri north slopes and Deccan Plateau, the south and southeastern slopes, the Gudalur Plateau, and the upper plateau) harboured together 10 corridors that needed to be maintained, or restored, or even partially restored.
    Attribution
    Davidar E.R.C., Davidar P., Davidar P., Puyravaud J.P. (2012). Journal of Threatened Taxa 14(4) pp. 3284-3293; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o3008.3284-93
  • Title
    An assessment of human-elephant conflict in Manas National Park, Assam, India
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    An assessment of human-elephant conflict was carried out in the fringe villages around Manas National Park, Assam during 2005-06. The available forest department conflict records since 1991 onwards were also incorporated during analysis. Conflict was intense in the months of July-August and was mostly concentrated along the forest boundary areas, decreasing with distance from the Park. Crop damage occurred during two seasons; paddy (the major crop) suffered the most due to raiding. Crop maturity and frequency of raiding were positively correlated. Single bull elephants were involved in conflicts more frequently (59%) than female herds (41%), while herds were involved in majority of crop raiding cases. Of the single elephants, 88% were makhnas and 11.9% were tuskers. The average herd size recorded was 8 individuals, with group size ranging up to 16. Mitigation measures presently adopted involve traditional drive-away techniques including making noise by shouting, drum beating, bursting fire crackers and firing gun shots into the air, and using torch light, pelting stones and throwing burning torches. Kunkis have been used in severe cases. Machans are used for guarding the crops. Combinations of methods are most effective. Family herds were easily deflected, while single bulls were difficult to ward off. Affected villagers have suggested methods like regular patrolling (39%) by the Forest Department officials along the Park boundary, erection of a concrete wall (18%) along the Park boundary, electric fencing (13%), simply drive away (13%), culling (11%) and lighting the Park boundary during night hours (6%). Attempts to reduce conflict by changing the traditional cropping pattern by introducing some elephant-repellent alternative cash crops (e.g. lemon and chilli) are under experiment.
    Attribution
    Nath N.K., Lahkar B.P., Brahma N., Dey S., Das J.P, Sarma P.K., Talukdar B.K. (2009). Journal of Threatened Taxa 6(1) pp. 309-316; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o1821.309-16
  • Title
    Estimating Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, density through distance sampling in the tropical forests of Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, India
    Type
    Report
    Description
    To determine abundance, density and distribution of wild animals, it is crucial to estimate populations using reliable sampling techniques. In most earlier studies, elephant populations were estimated employing block counts or dung counts, which provide biased estimates due to limitations of the methods. We estimated an Asian elephant population using distance sampling, a quantitatively robust technique, in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, a critical elephant conservation area in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve in south India. We laid 33 transects with a total length of 93 km. We walked these transects five to 11 times amounting to a total of 795.5 km of walks. We collected data on location, number and age-sex classes through direct elephant sightings, using rangefinders, global positioning systems and compass. We used DISTANCE software for analysis. We estimated per km2cluster density as 0.69 elephant herds, mean cluster size as 2.44, and elephant density as 1.7 animals. This amounts to a total of 713 elephants in 610 km2of the sanctuary. A high percentage of males less than 30 years old and a low immature:adult female ratio indicated the severity of poaching in the recent past in the study region.
    Attribution
    H. N. Kumara, S. Rathnakumar , M. Ananda Kumar and M. Singh.