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5 documents found tagged mangrove [X]
  • Title
    Butterflies of Sundarban Biosphere Reserve, West Bengal, eastern India: a preliminary survey of their taxonomic diversity, ecology and their conservation
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    The Indian Sundarbans, part of the globally famous deltaic eco-region, is little-studied for butterfly diversity and ecology. The present study reports 76 butterfly species belonging to five families, which is a culmination of 73 species obtained from surveys conducted over a period of three years (2009-2011) in reclaimed and mangrove forested areas and three species obtained from an earlier report. Six of these species are legally protected under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. Random surveys were employed for both the study areas, supplemented by systematic sampling in reclaimed areas. The reclaimed and forested areas differed largely in butterfly richness (Whittaker’s measure of ß diversity = 0.55). For sample-based rarefaction curves, butterfly genera showed a tendency to reach an asymptote sooner than the species. Numerous monospecific genera (77.19% of the taxa) resulted in a very gentle but non-linear positive slope for the species-genus ratio curve. A species-genus ratio of 1.33 indicated strong intra-generic competition for the butterflies of the Indian Sundarbans. Mangrove areas were species poor, with rare species like Euploea crameri, Colotis amata and Idea agamarshchana being recorded in the mangrove area; while Danaus genutia was found to be the most frequent butterfly. Butterfly abundance was very poor, with no endemic species and the majority (53.9% of the taxa; n=41) were found locally rare. The changing composition of butterflies in the once species-poor mangrove zone of the fragile Sundarbans may interfere with their normal ecosystem functioning.
    Attribution
    Chowdhury S. (2014). Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(6) pp. 6082-6092; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o3787.6082-92
  • Title
    Watering Pot Shell, Brechites penis (Linnaeus, 1758), a new record to India (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Anomalodesmata)
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Watering Pot Shell, Brechites penis (Linnaeus, 1758) is reported for the first time from India with description and photographs.
    Attribution
    Vijaykumar D.S., Anbalagan T., Nithyanandan M., Namboothri N. (2013). Journal of Threatened Taxa 12(5) pp. 4679-4681; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o3479.4679-81
  • Title
    Evaluation of some mangrove species on the nature of their reproduction along the coastal belt of the Indian Sunderbans
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Reproductive biology of three dominating mangrove species Rhizophora mucronata, Ceriops decandra and Avicennia marina from the Indian Sunderbans were studied. A comparative account on all floral parts revealed that as the bud progresses to completely open, the length of androecium surpassed the length of gynoecium and the anther matured first thus showing protandrous nature and favouring cross-fertilization. A study of pollen grain viability revealed that all of them produces fairly good amounts of viable pollen grains in their natural condition. The pollens showed their maximum viability late in the morning till early noon. The stigma showed peak receptivity after three days of flower opening in C. decandra and four days of flower opening in R. mucronata and A. marina. All the species showed out-breeding mechanism of pollination. The fruit setting percentage obtained by xenogamy was the highest and autogamy failed to show any result in all the three genera. Although Ceriops decandra and Avicennia marina showed very limited fruit set with geitonogamy, these two species can be called facultative out-crossers, while Rhizophora was obligate outcrosser in nature. The study on floral structure, pollen viability along with stigma receptivity of the investigated taxa guided to maximum exploitation of reproductive behavior for rising artificial and natural plant population in addition to build up a future research strategy in ecosystem conservation.
    Attribution
    Ghosh Arunima, Chakraborti Prabir (2012). Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(4) pp. 2427-2435; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o2416.2427-35
  • Title
    Sonneratia ovate Backer (Lythraceae): status and distribution of a Near Threatened mangrove species in tsunami impacted mangrove habitats of Nicobar Islands, India
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    The world’s most productive ecosystem, the mangrove forest, is under immense pressure due to natural and human induced disturbances. The Indian Ocean tsunami on 26 December 2004 had an adverse effect on these habitats by breaking and uprooting the mangrove trees. The mangrove vegetation and the coastal forest of Nicobar Islands, India, were severally damaged by the force of the tsunami and the loss of habitat due to the sudden rise in sea level. We studied the re-colonization of mangroves species that began after the tsunami over 19 Islands and 25 locations present in the Nicobar group. Sonneratia ovata (Lythraceae), a Near Threatened landward mangrove species, is reported for the first time from India. A total of 43 individuals of S. ovata was recorded from two sites, namely, Oh Hi Poh and Dhili Kadi, on Katchall Island. All the individuals of mangrove species ≥ 1cm girth at breast height were counted from both sites. The relative density for Bruguiera gymnorhiza (77%) and Sonneratia caseolaris (77%) are high at Oh Hi Poh and Dhili Kadi, respectively. Global distribution, occurrence in India, threats and conservation of S. ovata are discussed in detail. The influence of the tsunami in the dispersal of S. ovata from the nearest known sources Thailand, Malaysia or Indonesia is not very clear. Hence, molecular based study is required for the confirmation of the possible seed source location.
    Attribution
    Nehru P., Balasubramanian P. (2012). Journal of Threatened Taxa 15(4) pp. 3395-3400; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o3009.3395-400
  • Title
    A checklist of malacofauna of the Vellar Estuarine Mangroves, India
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    A survey conducted to know the diversity of malacofauna in Vellar estuarine mangroves (southeast coast of India). In this study, 13 species of molluscs (10 species of gastropods - Melampus ceylonicus, Cerithidea cingulata, Cassidula nucleus, Pythia plicata, Neritina (Dostia) violacea, Littorina scabra, Littorina melanostoma, Ellobium aurisjudae, C. obtusa T. telescopium and Assiminea nitida and 3 species of bivalves - Perna viridis, Crassostrea madrasensis and Modiolus metcalfei were recorded. M. pulchella, C. obtusa, L. scabra and N. violacea were found arboreal. T. telescopium, C. cingulata and E. aurisjudae were found crawling on the intertidal mud.
    Attribution
    Kesavan K., Palpandi C., Shanmugam A. (2009). Journal of Threatened Taxa 7(1) pp. 382-384; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o1912.382-4