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4 documents found tagged mixed breeding system [X]
  • Title
    Pollination ecology and fruiting behavior of Pavetta indica L. (Rubiaceae), a keystone shrub species in the southern Eastern Ghats forest, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Pavetta indica is a massive bloomer for a brief period in May. The flowers are hermaphroditic, strikingly protandrous, self and cross-compatible, nectariferous and psychophilous. They possess secondary pollen presentation mechanism as a device to avoid autonomous autogamy but it does not prevent geitonogamy. The fruit set largely occurs through geitonogamy and xenogamy. Butterflies, especially papilionids, pierids, nymphalids, and sphingid hawk moth pollinate the flowers while collecting nectar. Honey bees and blue-banded digger bees feed on pollen and effect only accidental pollination. The nectar is sucrose-rich and contains essential and non-essential amino acids. Birds are seed dispersal agents. Seeds are non-dormant and germinate readily during rainy season but their continued growth and establishment is subject to the availability of soil moisture and nutrients. The plant is not able to populate itself in its natural area. The local uses of different parts of the plant have been found to be affecting its reproductive success and natural regeneration rate. Therefore, regulation of the uses of this plant is recommended for its survival and restoration of its population size in the natural areas due to its role as a keystone species for bees and butterflies during dry season.
    Attribution
    A.J. Solomon Raju, M. Mallikarjuna Rao, K. Venkata Ramana, C. Prasada Rao & M. Sulakshana, Journal of Threatened Taxa, Vol 8, No 9 (2016); pp. 9155–9170 http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/jott.2340.8.9.9155-9170
  • Title
    Pollination ecology of Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn. (Lamiaceae) in Coringa mangrove ecosystem, Andhra Pradesh, India
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn. (Lamiaceae) is bisexual, self-compatible and has a vector-dependent mixed breeding system. They are dichogamous and herkogamous; the day 1 flowers are staminate while the day 2 and 3 flowers are pistillate. The plant blooms in the evening, possesses a white long corolla with a hairy interior to exclude other insects and strong fragrance are adaptations for pollination by the hawk-moth Macroglossum gyrans. The 2nd and 3rd day flowers are nectar-rich and attract hawk-moths during the dawn and dusk hours. The plant is also visited by bees and butterflies. The bees Xylocopa and Anthophora are primary nectar robbers which collect nectar without effecting pollination. In C. inerme, three forms of flowers can be distinguished based on the position of sex organs. The first form is characterized by elongated stamens and a style which occur in close proximity to each other just after anthesis facilitating contact between the stamens and stigma. The second form is characterized by the scattered position of stamens and style. In the third form, the stamens are fully extended while the style is curved away from them, either to the left or to the right; subsequently the stamens curl inward and the style elongates. Interestingly, the three flower forms can be found within a cyme also. These forms of flowers with strong protandry prevent autonomous selfing but not geitonogamy. The fruit is a capsule and breaks open to disperse nutlets. Birds such as Acridotheres tristis, Corvus splendens, Corvus macrorhynchos and Turdoides caudatus disperse nutlets during the early winter season. Seeds germinate in June and seedlings grow gradually to produce new plants.
    Attribution
    A.J. Solomon Raju & Rajendra Kumar, Journal of Threatened Taxa, Vol 8, No 5 (2016); pp. 8777–8787 http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/jott.2276.8.5.8777-8787
  • Title
    Pollination ecology of the Gray Nicker Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae) a mangrove associate at Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Caesalpinia crista L., commanly known as Gray Nicker, is an oligohaline mangrove associate confined to landward marginal areas of the Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India. The flowering occurs during the wet season from June to November. The flowers are hermaphroditic, self-compatible and exhibit a mixed breeding system. The floral characteristics that constitute melittophilous pollination syndrome include diurnal anthesis, slight fragrance, zygomorphy, yellow petals, with a flag petal displaying a conspicuous nectar guide, and the presence of nectar with a high sugar concentration. Extra-floral nectar along the rachis is an additional attractant and is easily perceivable by bees. The plant is pollinated almost exclusively by bees, especially carpenter bees. The floral characteristics such as free petals, fully exposed stamens with dry and powdery pollen grains and hairy stigma facilitate anemophily which is effective due to high winds during the rainy season. The prolific growth and near synchronous flowering at population level contribute to pollen availability in huge quantities and enable anemophily as an effective mode of pollination. The functionality of melittophily and anemophily together constitutes ambophily. Hand-pollination experiments indicated that the plant is principally out-crossing. The natural fruit set does not exceed 10%; this lowest percentage could be partly due to flower-feeding by the beetle, Mylabris phalerata. The fruits are indehiscent, 1-seeded, which are buoyant and are not dispersed far away from the parental sites. The viable seeds produce new plants in the vicinity of parental plants during the rainy season. This plant builds up its population as small patches or in pure stands and hence is important in building landward mangrove cover.
    Attribution
    Raju P.S., Raju A.J.S.. (2014). Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(6) pp. 6345-6354; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o3754.6345-54
  • Title
    Pollination ecology of Chengam Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea C.F. Gaertn. (Magnoliopsida: Rubiales: Rubiaceae), a non-viviparous evergreen tree species
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea C.F. Gaertn. or Chengam is a non-viviparous evergreen tree species. The flowers are bisexual, self-compatible, self-pollinating, temporally dioecious and exhibit a mixed breeding system.  The plant is both melittophilous and anemophilous at the study area.  Natural fruit set is 100% but seeds are non-viable which might be due to a genetic disorder. 
    Attribution
    Raju A.J. Solomon, Rajesh B. (2014). Journal of Threatened Taxa 14(6) pp. 6668-6676; doi:10.11609/jott.1717.6668-6676