Leading up to the National Moth Week on July 22, we interview some contributors of moth observations.Listen to the first podcast episode with Nagesh O. S. on the IBP blog.

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1 document found tagged nectar robbery [X]
  • Title
    Pollination ecology of Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn. (Lamiaceae) in Coringa mangrove ecosystem, Andhra Pradesh, India
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn. (Lamiaceae) is bisexual, self-compatible and has a vector-dependent mixed breeding system. They are dichogamous and herkogamous; the day 1 flowers are staminate while the day 2 and 3 flowers are pistillate. The plant blooms in the evening, possesses a white long corolla with a hairy interior to exclude other insects and strong fragrance are adaptations for pollination by the hawk-moth Macroglossum gyrans. The 2nd and 3rd day flowers are nectar-rich and attract hawk-moths during the dawn and dusk hours. The plant is also visited by bees and butterflies. The bees Xylocopa and Anthophora are primary nectar robbers which collect nectar without effecting pollination. In C. inerme, three forms of flowers can be distinguished based on the position of sex organs. The first form is characterized by elongated stamens and a style which occur in close proximity to each other just after anthesis facilitating contact between the stamens and stigma. The second form is characterized by the scattered position of stamens and style. In the third form, the stamens are fully extended while the style is curved away from them, either to the left or to the right; subsequently the stamens curl inward and the style elongates. Interestingly, the three flower forms can be found within a cyme also. These forms of flowers with strong protandry prevent autonomous selfing but not geitonogamy. The fruit is a capsule and breaks open to disperse nutlets. Birds such as Acridotheres tristis, Corvus splendens, Corvus macrorhynchos and Turdoides caudatus disperse nutlets during the early winter season. Seeds germinate in June and seedlings grow gradually to produce new plants.
    Attribution
    A.J. Solomon Raju & Rajendra Kumar, Journal of Threatened Taxa, Vol 8, No 5 (2016); pp. 8777–8787 http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/jott.2276.8.5.8777-8787