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5 documents found tagged pollination [X]
  • Title
    Pollination ecology of Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn. (Lamiaceae) in Coringa mangrove ecosystem, Andhra Pradesh, India
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn. (Lamiaceae) is bisexual, self-compatible and has a vector-dependent mixed breeding system. They are dichogamous and herkogamous; the day 1 flowers are staminate while the day 2 and 3 flowers are pistillate. The plant blooms in the evening, possesses a white long corolla with a hairy interior to exclude other insects and strong fragrance are adaptations for pollination by the hawk-moth Macroglossum gyrans. The 2nd and 3rd day flowers are nectar-rich and attract hawk-moths during the dawn and dusk hours. The plant is also visited by bees and butterflies. The bees Xylocopa and Anthophora are primary nectar robbers which collect nectar without effecting pollination. In C. inerme, three forms of flowers can be distinguished based on the position of sex organs. The first form is characterized by elongated stamens and a style which occur in close proximity to each other just after anthesis facilitating contact between the stamens and stigma. The second form is characterized by the scattered position of stamens and style. In the third form, the stamens are fully extended while the style is curved away from them, either to the left or to the right; subsequently the stamens curl inward and the style elongates. Interestingly, the three flower forms can be found within a cyme also. These forms of flowers with strong protandry prevent autonomous selfing but not geitonogamy. The fruit is a capsule and breaks open to disperse nutlets. Birds such as Acridotheres tristis, Corvus splendens, Corvus macrorhynchos and Turdoides caudatus disperse nutlets during the early winter season. Seeds germinate in June and seedlings grow gradually to produce new plants.
    Attribution
    A.J. Solomon Raju & Rajendra Kumar, Journal of Threatened Taxa, Vol 8, No 5 (2016); pp. 8777–8787 http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/jott.2276.8.5.8777-8787
  • Title
    Pollination ecology of Chengam Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea C.F. Gaertn. (Magnoliopsida: Rubiales: Rubiaceae), a non-viviparous evergreen tree species
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea C.F. Gaertn. or Chengam is a non-viviparous evergreen tree species. The flowers are bisexual, self-compatible, self-pollinating, temporally dioecious and exhibit a mixed breeding system.  The plant is both melittophilous and anemophilous at the study area.  Natural fruit set is 100% but seeds are non-viable which might be due to a genetic disorder. 
    Attribution
    Raju A.J. Solomon, Rajesh B. (2014). Journal of Threatened Taxa 14(6) pp. 6668-6676; doi:10.11609/jott.1717.6668-6676
  • Title
    Floral phenology, secondary pollen presentation and pollination mechanism in Inula racemosa (Angiosperms: Asteraceae)
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Inula racemosa Hook. f. is protandrous, discharges pollen grains inside the anther tube and presents pollen secondarily onto the sweeping hairs of the style. The style and stigmatic branches present the yellow clumped pollen grains for pollination. This study describes floral functional morphology and phenology, anther dehiscence and pollen presentation, growth and behaviour of style during anthesis and pollination mechanism of I. racemosa. The species is entomophilous and is characterized by a highly asynchronous sexual phase. A large degree of asynchrony from floret to floret in a capitulum, and capitulum to capitulum in a plant, keeps the pollen dispersed for a longer duration. Two insect families were represented in the pollinator survey: Hymenoptera and Diptera. A significant correlation was observed between the number of capitula visited per bout and foraging time. We discuss morphological features of the ?owers which may enhance the pollen removal rate per bee visit and consequently cause a high visitation and pollination rate.
    Attribution
    Shabir P.A., Nawchoo I.A., Wani A.A. (2013). Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(5) pp. 4498-4503; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o3320.4498-503
  • Title
    Floral and reproductive biology of Sarpagandha Rauvolfia serpentine (Gentianales: Apocynaceae) in semi-arid environment of India
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Sarpagandha plant Rauvolfia serpentina (Linn.) Benth., ex Kurz bears small, tubular white to pinkish flowers with gamopetalous corolla, containing nectar deep at the base of the corolla tube. Psychophilous mode of pollination appears to be prevalent. Flowering occurs during two summer months. Anthesis takes place in the morning when atmospheric temperature ranges from 25-29 0C, and anther dehiscence from 28-31 0C. Flower longevity is for a little more than two days. Nectar is produced on both the days of flower opening, and over a wide range of ambient temperature (29-44 0C). Flowers are protogynous preventing selfing. Pollen viability and stigmatic receptivity are for a short duration. When compared with the absolute reproductive potential, the realized reproductive potential is very low.
    Attribution
    Sihag R.C., Wadhwa N. (2011). Journal of Threatened Taxa 1(3) pp. 1432-1436; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o2337.1432-6
  • Title
    Interactions between insect pollinators and the ornamental tree, Tecoma stans (L.)
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Tecoma stans (Bignoniaceae) is a native of Central America but occurs throughout tropical latitudes due to cultivation as an ornamental; in India it is also normally cultivated as an ornamental tree. The plant has two anthesis schedules in a day - one during 0500-0800hrs and another during 1500-1700hrs. Different species of bees and wasps collect pollen and nectar from the flowers during daylight hours, while hawk moths collect nectar during the 0530-0700hrs and 1630-1830hrs periods. The flowers are an important source of pollen and/or nectar for these insects, and all facilitate pollination. The nectar contains three common sugars: hexoses, glucose and fructose, and it is also a source of three essential amino acids: lysine, histidine and threonine, and eight non-essential amino acids: glycine, serine, proline, arginine, glutamic acid, cystine, cysteine and alanine. With these floral rewards, T. stans sustains pollinator populations in areas where it is cultivated.
    Attribution
    Jonathan K.H., Raju A.J.S., Branham K.S., Devi D.S. (2009). Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(1) pp. 126-127; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o1871.126-7