Leading up to the National Moth Week on July 22, we interview some contributors of moth observations.Listen to the first podcast episode with Nagesh O. S. on the IBP blog.

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3 documents found tagged seed dispersal [X]
  • Title
    On the reproductive ecology of Suaeda maritima, S. monoica and S. nudiflora (Chenopodiaceae)

    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Floral biology, sexual system, breeding system, pollinators, fruiting and seed dispersal aspects of three Suaeda species, S. maritima, S. monoica and S. nudiflora (Chenopodiaceae) were studied. The flowers of all the three species are hermaphroditic, dichogamous, strongly protogynous with a pistillage phase during the mature bud stage and staminate phase following anthesis, self-compatible exhibiting mixed breeding systems with special adaptation for cross-pollination; but both self- and cross-pollination are vector-dependent. In all, the flowers display a mix of anemophilous and entomophilous traits. Anemophily is effective in high salt marshes while water currents bring about pollination in low salt marshes; insects pollinate the flowers while collecting the forage from pistillate and staminate phase flowers. In these species, the whole plant breaks off and rolls on the floor while shedding its diaspores. Fruits with seeds intact and/or seeds shed from fruits float on water due to their ability for buoyancy. The fruits and seeds thus disperse, settle in the entire extent of salt marshes or coastal areas and germinate in mid-summer season when salinity is very high in high and low salt marshes.
    Attribution
    A.J. Solomon Raju & Rajendra Kumar, Journal of Threatened Taxa, Vol 8, No 6 (2016); pp. 8860–8876 http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/jott.2275.8.6.8860-8876
  • Title
    CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Frugivory and seed dispersal by the Asian Elephant Elephas maximus in the tropical forests of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, southern India
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Seed dispersal plays a potential role in plant species demographic processes. Elephants are important seed-dispersing agents. We studied frugivory and seed dispersal by Asian Elephants in the tropical deciduous and thorn forests of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, southern India. We determined fruit consumption based on the presence of seeds and fruit remnants in elephant dung piles. In total, we identified seeds of eight plant species belonging to seven families in 16% out of 455 dung piles examined between 1991 and 2004. Coinciding with a peak fruiting season in the study area, seeds and other fruit parts appeared in the dung piles significantly more frequently during the dry season than in the wet seasons (southwest and northeast monsoons). Owing to differences in fruit species abundance in different habitats, there was more evidence of fruit consumption in the dry thorn than in the dry and moist deciduous forests. This corresponds with insufficient grass availability in thorn forests during the dry season and an increase in browse consumption as a supplementary diet. Seeds of Tamarindus indica and Acacia intsia were found in elephant dung more frequently than other species. Seed and fruit remnants were found in almost an equal number of dung piles of both bulls and herds.
    Attribution
    Baskaran N., Desai A.A. (2013). Journal of Threatened Taxa 14(5) pp. 4893-4897; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o2848.4893-7
  • Title
    Avian frugivory and seed dispersal of Indian Sandalwood Santalum album in Tamil Nadu, India
    Type
    Journal Article
    Description
    Santalum album, a medium sized evergreen tree found in dry forest tracts of the Deccan Peninsula, India is vulnerable (IUCN) and red listed species in southern India. The paper discusses the role of avian frugivores in seed dissemination of S.album in Tamil Nadu. Observations from different locations of Western and Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu are presented. The forest type of the study sites comprise of southern dry mixed deciduous forest. Extended watches of 3-hr duration were made on focal trees. During the extended observations, the observer noted the name of the visitor, frequency of fruit-feeding visits by different species, and fruit handling behaviour. A total of 10 species of birds and Three-striped Palm Squirrel foraged fruit crops. Birds constituted the principal seed dispersers of Santalum album. Role of Indian Grey Hornbill in regeneration of S. album was evidenced by the presence of sandalwood seedlings in hornbill’s nest middens. Although bulbuls made frequent foraging visits, they ate the fruits in piecemeal and did not move the seeds away from the parent trees. Among the avian foragers, Asian Koel, Common Myna, Brahminy Starling, Brown-headed Barbet, White-headed Babbler and Indian Grey Hornbill constituted the major seed dispersers of S.album. These birds visited the fruit crops more frequently and swallowed the fruits wholly. Conservation efforts need to focus in providing a healthy habitat for the seed dispersing birds such as koel, as the population of sandalwood tree is dwindling in the wild.
    Attribution
    Balasubramanian P., Aruna R., Anbarasu C., Santhoshkumar E. (2011). Journal of Threatened Taxa 5(3) pp. 1775-1777; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o2552.1775-7