Trees to 25 m; crown sparse; bark reddish-brown; winter buds oblong, tapering above, scales oblong, to 1.4 cm, apex acuminate; margins serrulate. Leaves in 3 s, rarely more, to 25 cm, margins serrulate, apex acute; stomatic lines on all 3 sides, in 5-7 rows; basal sheath to 1.5 cm, persistent. Staminate cones ovoid, to 1.2 x 0.6 cm, clustered. Microsporophylls broadly obovate, to 0.15 cm; hood rounded, to 0.1 cm.
Dr. N Sasidharan (Dr. B P Pal Fellow), Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi
Describes biorhythms - those states or conditions characterised by regular repetition in time, whether on the scale of seconds, hours, days, or seasons. It could also cover phenomena such as "plant flowering" or "chewing rates". Life cycles are treated in the field for Life Cycle. Seasonal migration and reproduction are usually treated separately.
General description of the sites where the species is found (ecosystem, forest, environment or microhabitat). Includes realm (e.g Terrestrial etc) and climatic information (e.g Boreal); also includes requirements and tolerances; horizontal and vertical (altitudinal) distribution. Also includes information referring to territorial extension of the individual or group in terms of its activities (feeding, mating, etc.), associated mostly to vertebrates.
Enumerates geographic entities where the taxon lives. Covers ranges, e.g., a global range, or a narrower one; may be biogeographical, political or other (e.g., managed areas like conservencies); endemism; native or exotic. Does not include altitudinal distribution, which is covered under Habitat.