Hierarchy contributed by the species page author
Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2011.FishBase.World Wide Web electronic publication.<a href='http://www.fishbase.org/' target='_blank' >www.fishbase.org, version (10/2011).</a>
<a target='_blank' href='http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/1'>Accessed through GBIF data portal, GBIF Backbone Taxonomy</a>
<a target='_blank' href='www.iucnredlist.org'>IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. Exported on 12 January 2012</a>
|Scientific Name||Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant, 1878)|
|References||Original Published Description: Serranus Bleekeri Vaillant in Vaillant and Bocourt, 1877:47 and 69 (based on Serranus variolosus [non Valenciennes]: Bleeker, 1849).|
Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16 - 18; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8 - 9
Caudal fin subtruncate, truncate or emarginate.
Pectoral fins rather short, as long as or shorter than postorbital part of spine.
Last dorsal fin spine considerably shorter than third dorsal fin.
Middle opercular spine about equidistant from lower and upper spines.
Teeth on middle side of lower ja in 2 rows, upper part of head and body, pelvic and anal fins, upper half of caudal fin covered with orange to orange red spots.
- (From Talwar and Kacker, 1984).
Recognized by the bluish lower half of the caudal fin and the lack of spots there compared to the upper half .
A medium sized fish with an elongate and laterally compressed body. Body depth contained 3.0 to 3.5 times in standard length (for fish 11 to 52 cm standard length). Head length contained 2.4 to 2.7 times in standard length, interorbital area flat to slightly convex. Preopercle angle with 2 to 9 enlarged serrae, adults with a notch above preopercle angle, but no enlarged spinules on latter. Upper edge of operculum straight and 3 flat spines, maxilla scaly, reaching to or beyond vertical at rear edge of eye. Midlateral part of lower jaw with 2 rows of subequal teeth. Teeth of outer row longer, those of inner rows shortera and depressible. Canines at front of jaws. Gill rakers 9 to 11 on upper limb, 16 to 18 on lower limb, 25 to 28 total. Scales ctenoid, adults with a few small auxiliary scales.
Juveniles (less than 11 cm standard length) with 7 faint dark bars dorsally on body, the first two on nape, the last on caudal peduncle, all bars more or less demarcated by small dark spots, no dark spots on head or fins.
This fish is an open water/substratum spawner. Fertilisation is external.
Max reported length is 76 cm.
76 TL (unsexed)
76.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; )
Dorsal fin with 11 spines and 16 to 18 rays, third to fifth spines longest, the interspinous membranes incised. Anal fin with 3 spines and 8 or 9 (rarely 9) rays. Pectoral-fin rays 17 to 19 pectoral-fin length contained 1.6 to 2.1 times in head length. Pelvic-fin length contained 1.9 to 2.5 times in head length. Caudal fin truncate. Color of body at ground is reddish brown above and pale below. Upper part of head and body also reddish brown. Pelvic and anal fins and upper half of caudal fin with orange to orange red spots. Lower half of caudal fin and outer edge of anal fin purple brown.
Prey - Benthic crusteceans, small fishes
Monogenea, Digenea, zoonotic metacercariae members
Govindaraju and Jayasankar (2004) have studied the taxonomic relationship among grouper species revealed by RAPD fingerprinting from southeast and southwest coast of India. E. bleekeri was found to be most distantly related to E. malabaricus and E. diacanthus. E. chlorostigma and E. bleekeri were also found to share a very close genetic relationship.
Zoonotic metacercariae species - Heterophyopsis continua and Procerovum varium, were reported from wild and cultured specimens of E. bleekeri at Vietnam.
Fish Lymphocystis disease (FLD) caused due to iridovirus was reported from Guangdong Province, China (Haifa, 2001).
Parasites reported from E. bleekeri at different locations include:
1. Venmathi Maran et al., 2009 reported Caligus rotundigenitalis Yü, 1933 of the parasite group Copepoda in Malaysia.
2. Vinoth et al., 2010 reported Caligus epidemicus of the parasite group Copepoda from India.
3. Velasquez, 1959 reported Neidhartia mcintoshi n. sp. and Prosorhynchus macintoshi (Velásquez, 1959) (as Prosorhynchus mcintoshi) of the parasite group Digenea in Philippine.
4. Leong (2001) reported Benedenia lutjani (Whittington and Kearn, 1993), Benedenia sp. (Diesing, 1858), Megalocotyloides convolute, Megalocotyloides epinepheli (Bychowsky and Nagibina, 1976), Neobenedenia girellae (Hargis, 1955), Neobenedenia sp. (Yamaguti, 1963), Pseudorhabdosynochus coioidesis Bu, Leong, Wong, Woo e Foo, 1999, Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli Yamaguti,1958, and Pseudorhabdosynochus lanteuensis of the parasite group Monogenea in Thailand.
5. Hamid (2001) reported Diplectanum penangi Liang and Leong, 1991, Pseudorhabdosynochus latesi Tripathi, 1955 and Pseudorhabdosynochus monosquamodiscusi (Balasuriya and Leong, 1995) of the parasite group Monogenea in Thailand.
Prosorhynchus Disease (metacercaria). Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.) ;
Prosorhynchus Infestation 3. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
Occurs on shallow banks, but is not known from well-developed coral reefs. These demersal marine fish are usually found at a depth range of 30 - 104 m
Habitat demersal; marine; depth range 30 - 104 m
E. bleekeri is an Indo-West Pacific species occurring from the Persian Gulf to Taiwan, Indonesia and the northern coast of Australia. E. bleekeri was reported from Bahrain, Iran, India, Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia, Borneo, Philippines, China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Australia.
Range: Tropical; 32°N - 17°S, 48°E - 136°E
Known from Mumbai and Tamil Nadu coast
Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf to Taiwan, Indonesia and the northern coast of Australia. Not known from Japan, but may occur here. It has not been found at any islands of Micronesia nor Polynesia.
Epinephelus bleekeri is widespread, but apparently no longer abundant in large parts of its range.
Harmless to humans.
Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Assessor/s: Russell, B., Samoilys, M., Cornish, A. & Carpenter, K.
Reviewer/s: Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)
Not Evaluated IUCN 2006
Perhaps the greatest threat to Epinephelus bleekeri globally is overfishing. In India, trawl fishery is one of the major threats to this species. In many Southeast Asian countries, the process of removal of small juveniles from natural habitats for farming can lead to decreased numbers of this fish species.
Fisheries: minor commercial.
Price category: very high.
An excellent tasting fish, but it is apparently not abundant. Cultured in floating net cages, pens, ponds in South east Asian countries. Used in Life Reef Food Fish Trade in Hong Kong (Donaldson et al., 2003).
fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; price category: very high; price reliability: questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this genus
Caught with hook-and-line, longlines, and trawls. Traps are used to catch E. bleekeri at Gulf of Mannar (India) region perticularly in Keelakarai and Rameswaram (LalMohan, 1985). One of the major species at "Kalava grounds". Serranid fishery occurs off Kerala, South India (Sivakami and Seetha, 2006).
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