Hierarchy contributed by the species page author
<a target='_blank' href='http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/1'>Accessed through GBIF data portal, GBIF Backbone Taxonomy</a>
<a target='_blank' href='www.iucnredlist.org'>IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. Exported on 12 January 2012</a>
|Scientific Name||Melanoides tuberculatus (Muller, 1774)|
These snails become capable of reproduction at sizes as small as 5-10 mm in length. Females parthenogenic and ovo-viviparous. Under favourable conditions, females transfer fertilised eggs to brood pouch for hatching. 1-64 embryos produced. Juveniles 1.2-2.2 mm in size at birth.
Average shell length: 20–27 mm.
Some specimens may be up to 80 mm in length.
Elongate, conical, high shell usually light brown in colour and marked with rust-coloured spots. 10-15 slightly convex whorls, with coarse striations spirally. Operculum present. Gonads of female cream, yellow or orange in colour, those of males red in colour.
Nocturnal burrowing species.
Feeds primarily on algae.
Intermediate host of Paragonimus westermani (Oriental lung fluke), Metagonimus trematode, Clonorchis sinensis (Chinese liver fluke), Opisthorchis sinensis, Centrocestus formosanus, Philophthalmus sp., Haplorchis sp. and Diorchitrema formosanum.
Freshwater - clear water with rocky or sandy bottom in rapid flowing mountain streams, also pools, lakes and ditches.
Melanoides tuberculatus has a very broad global distribution. It has been reported from northern and southern Africa; eastern Mediterranean countries, Saudi Arabia, south and southeast Asia, southern China, Japan, and northern parts of Australia (Yueying Liu 1979, Brown 1994, Ramakrishna and Dey 2007). It is an introduced species in North and South America.
In India, this species is seen everywhere except in Kashmir.
There is little information on the population biology of Melanoides tuberculatus, but survey data suggests that it is relatively widespread and common.
Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Assessor/s: Madhyastha, A.
Reviewer/s: Daniel, B.A., Molur, S., Allen, D., Able, J. & García, N.
Contributor/s: Neubert, E. & Amr, Z.S.S.
One potential threat is that by sedimentation in fresh water habitats by deforestion and agriculture. Impacts of this threat still to be determined.
Often seen in freshwater aquariums.
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