Hierarchy contributed by the species page author
Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2011.FishBase.World Wide Web electronic publication.<a href='http://www.fishbase.org/' target='_blank' >www.fishbase.org, version (10/2011).</a>
<a target='_blank' href='http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/1'>Accessed through GBIF data portal, GBIF Backbone Taxonomy</a>
<a target='_blank' href='www.iucnredlist.org'>IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. Exported on 12 January 2012</a>
|Scientific Name||Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes, 1828)|
|References||Original Published Description: Serranus chlorostigma Valenciennes in Cuv. and Val., 1828:352 (type locality: Seychelles).|
Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16 - 18; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8
Caudal fin subtruncate, truncate or emarginate.
Depth of body 2.8 to 3.4 times in standard length.
Dorsal fin with 14 to 17 soft rays.
Anal fin with 8 soft rays.
Middle opercular spine about equidistant from lower and upper spines.
Dorsal fin with 15 to 17 soft rays, body with small or large spots or network of light lines.
Preopercular angle with several small serrae, body and fins with numerous small hexagonal spots or light network, caudal fin without white edge.
- (From Talwar and Kacker, 1984).
Live color whitish, with small dark brown spots on head, body, and fins except ventrally on head, thorax, and lower abdomen. Can assume a transient color phase of 3-4 rows of very large round dark spots on top of the small-spot pattern. 96-125 scales in longitudinal series. Pyloric caeca 26-52.
Body depth contained 2.8 to 3.3 times in standard length (for fish 12 to 51 cm standard length); body width contained 1.8 to 2.2 times in the depth. Head length contained 2.4 to 2.7 times in standard length; interorbital slightly convex; preopercle angular, with 4 to 7 enlarged serrae at angle; upper edge of operculum straight; posterior nostrils not noticeably larger than anterior nostrils; maxilla reaches about to vertical at rear edge of eye; maxilla scaly, with a low step on posterior part of ventral edge; midlateral part of lower jaw with 2 to 4 rows of teeth, the inner ones about twice the size of outer teeth. Gill rakers 8 to 11 on upper limb, 15 to 18 on lower limb, 23 to 29 total; gill rakers longer than gill filaments. pectoral fins usually slightly longer than pelvic fins, pectoral-fin length contained 1.6 to 2.0 times in head length; pelvic-fin length contained 1.8 to 2.3 times in head length; caudal-peduncle depth contained 3.0 to 3.6 times in head length; caudal fin truncate or slightly emarginate. Lateral-body scales ctenoid, with auxiliary scales; lateral-line scales 48 to 53; lateral-scale series 96 to 122. Pyloric caeca 26 to 52
- From Talwar & Kacker (1984) and Heemstra & Randall (1993)
Sex change occurs at length of 46.4 cm TL and 3 years of age . Also Ref. 6976.
Protogynous E. chlorostigma begins life as a female. At maturity, some females change into males. The first active males appear when fish sizes reach 37cm.
The spawning season of E. chlorostigma in the Seychelles was protracted, occurring between November and April and with peaks at the beginning and end of that period, corresponding to the inter-tropical monsoon months. Premalatha (1989) reported spawnning season in June-July at Indian coast.
This fish species is an open/substratum spawner and non-guarder. It is considered unlikely that they form transient aggregations in the spawning period. Fertilization is external.
Max 29 years
Recorded size range: 63-75 cm.
Max weight: 7 kg.
Maximum length: estimated to be 80.7 cm.
80 TL (unsexed)
75.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; ); max. published weight: 7,000 g ; max. reported age: 29 years
According to Premalatha (1989), the length-weight relationship of E. chlorostigma (length range 32-65 cm) was estimated to be as log W= -2.7115 + 3.0425 logL in females and log W = -1.7501 + 2.8497 logL in males.
Dorsal fin with 11 spines and 16 to 18 rays, the third or fourth spine longest, its length contained 2.4 to 3.2 times in head length, the interspinous membranes slightly to moderately incised; anal fin rounded or angular, with 3 spines and 8 rays, the third spine longer than second; pectoral-fin rays 17 to 19. Color generally brownish, with mumerous closly set hexagonal or roundish darker spots, the interspaces forming as a whole a ple reticulation. Fins spotted like the body (Talwar and Kacker, 1984).
Very similar to E. gabriellae and E. polylepis (likely to be confused) (Randall and Heemstra, 1991). These two species replace E. chlorostigma in the north-west Indian Ocean including the Arabian Gulf.
Prey: Small fishes and benthic crusteceans, mainly stomatopods and crabs.
Found over a wide range of habitats like seagrass beds and outer reef slopes ; in the South China Sea, it is also found on mud bottoms. Feeds on small fishes and crustaceans (mainly stomatopods and crabs). Also in Ref. 9137, 58534.
Govindaraju and Jayasankar (2004) studied the taxonomic relationship among grouper species along south east and south west coast of India by RAPD fingerprinting. E. chlorostigma and E. bleekeri shared a very close genetic relationship. Also, the highest genetic polymorphism was recorded in E. chlorostigma.
Fish Lymphocystis Disease (FLD) caused due to iridovirus, measuring 130-330 nm size, is a chronic viral infection that occurs among finfish worldwide over a wide range of water temperatures including tropical climates. It was reported in E. chlorostigma cultured in marine net cages in Guangdong, China (Chong and Chao, 1984).
The digenean parasites reported in E. chlorostigma from the Indo-Pacific region include -
1. Allopodocotyle epinepheli (Yamaguti, 1942) from Japan, Cainocreadium epinepheli ((Yamaguti,1934) from Arabian Gulf (Saoud et al. 1986), and Japan (Yamaguti, 1942).
2. Hamacreadium mutabile (Linton, 1910) from Red Sea by Ramadan (1983).
3. Hamacreadium mutabile Linton, 1910 (as Hamacreadium epinepheli Yamaguti, 1934) from the Pacific coast of Japan (Yamaguti, 1942).
4. Podocotyle epinepheli Yamaguti, 1942 from Naha, Okinawa Island by Yamaguti, 1958.
5. Prosorhynchus epinepheli Yamaguti, 1939 from Arabian Gulf by Saoud et al. (1988b) and from India by Hafeezullah and Siddiqi (1970).
Monogenean parasites reported from E. chlorostigma include -
1. Benedenia lutjani (Whittington and Kearn, 1993), Benedenia sp. (Diesing, 1858), Diplectanum grouperi (Leong, Wong, Woo e Foo, 1999), Haliotrema epinepheli (Young, 1968), Megalocotyloides convolute , Megalocotyloides epinepheli (Bychowsky and Nagibina, 1976), Neobenedenia girellae (Hargis, 1955), Neobenedenia sp. (Yamaguti, 1963), Pseudorhabdosynochus coioidesis (Bu, Leong, Wong, Woo e Foo, 1999), Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli (Yamaguti,1958), and Pseudorhabdosynochus lanteuensis from Thailand marine water by Leong (2001).
2. Haliotrema epinepheli Young, 1968 from Red Sea by Paperna (1972).
3. Microcotyle mouwoi (Ishii et Sawada,1938) and Tetrancistrum sigani (Goto et kikuchi,1917) from Japan marine waters by Yamaguti(1963).
Epinephelus chlorostigma is a reef-associated species found over a wide range of habitats like seagrass beds and outer reef slopes. In the South China Sea, it is also found on mud bottoms. Depth range from 4 to 280 m.
Habitat reef-associated; non-migratory; marine; depth range 4 - 300 m
Widespread in the central tropical Indo-west pacific. Occurs on the both West and East coast of India.
Known from southwest coast
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to Natal, South Africa and eastward to the western Pacific, north to southern Japan, south to New Caledonia. Records from Persian Gulf are apparently misidentifications of Epinephelus polylepis. Not verified from the Comoros, continental shelf between Oman and Cambodia, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, and Australia.
Epinephelus chlorostigma is an abundant species throughout its range.
Harmless to humans.
Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Assessor/s: Choat, J.H., Craig, M.T., Fennessy, S., Ferreira, B., Bertoncini, A.A., Robinson, J. & Rocha, L.
Reviewer/s: Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)
Not Evaluated IUCN 2006
Epinephelus chlorostigma is under intense fishing pressure regionally, yet its deep habitat may provide some natural protection.
This is one of the major species to be exploited in the grouper fishery grounds in the southwest coast of India, mainly in Kerala state.
Excellent food fish. Common in markets of Kerala and Tamilnadu. Potential resource for surimi preparation.
E. chlorostigma forms an important component of grouper fisheries of Kerala (Southwest coast, India) at a depth range of 63-100 m. Caught by trawls, hand lines, traps, bottom set gill nets.