Plants greenish to brownish or blackish, varies in size, 10-30 mm long; leaf lobe ovate, strongly concave with acute, acuminate or apiculate apex, often incurved, ocelli in 1 or 2 rows, 10-20 cells long, rarely scattered or almost absent in some leaves; leaf lobules saccate, parallel or subparallel to stem with constricted mouth connected to a short stalk, sometimes bearing semicircular appendage; underleaves longer than wide, mostly with 1 or 2 marginal teeth, 0.5-0.6 x 0.48-0.58 mm; cell walls thickened with large nodulose trigones at base; dioecious, bracts and bracteoles often with spines at lateral margins, perianth oblong, strongly 3-keeled, surface smooth, rostrum prominent.
Nair, M.C., K.P. Rajesh and Madhusoodanan P.V. 2005. Bryophytes of Wayanad in Western Ghats. Malabar Natural History Society, Kozhikode, i-iv + 284pp.
General description of the sites where the species is found (ecosystem, forest, environment or microhabitat). Includes realm (e.g Terrestrial etc) and climatic information (e.g Boreal); also includes requirements and tolerances; horizontal and vertical (altitudinal) distribution. Also includes information referring to territorial extension of the individual or group in terms of its activities (feeding, mating, etc.), associated mostly to vertebrates.
Enumerates geographic entities where the taxon lives. Covers ranges, e.g., a global range, or a narrower one; may be biogeographical, political or other (e.g., managed areas like conservencies); endemism; native or exotic. Does not include altitudinal distribution, which is covered under Habitat.