|Scientific Name||Vitex peduncularis|
|Author||Wall. ex Schauer|
|References||Prodr. (DC.) 11: 687. 1847|
Flowering class: Dicot
Tree, 7-18 m high; stem and branches slender, obtusely 4-angular or subterete; young parts pubescent, glabrous when mature; nodes annulate; internodes 2.5-6 cm long. Leaves usually 3, rarely 4-foliolate; petioles flattened, slender, 5-10 cm long, pubescent; leaflets lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate or narrow-elliptic, acuminate or attenuate at base, entire somewhat undulate along margins, acuminate at apex; middle leaflets 10-20 x 3-5 cm; petiolules 0.5-1.5 cm long; lateral leaflets 8.5-15 x 3-4 cm; petiolules 0.5-1 cm long; chartaceous, subglabrous or glabrous above, with dense minute rounded yellow resinous glands beneath; lateral nerves 18-22 pairs, distinct beneath. Panicles axillary, 20-28 cm long; peduncles flattened, slender, 6.5-14 cm long, densely pubescent; bracts linear, ca 1 mm, pubescent. Flowers numerous; pedicels 1-2 mm long. Calyx campanulate, minutely 5-toothed with minute rounded yellow glands outside. Corolla infundibular, 2-lipped, 5-lobed, yellow or cream-coloured; upper lip 2-lobed; lobes ovate, ca 1 mm long; lower lip 3-lobed; midlobe suborbicular or ovate, entire, obtuse, ca 2 mm long; lateral lobes oblong, acute, ca 1.2 x 1 mm; tube narrow, ca 2 x 2 mm, grey-pubescent with rounded resinous glands outside. Stamens 4, didynamous; filaments slender, 2-3 mm long, included, sparsely hairy at base; anthers oblong, ca 0.7 mm, divaricate, basifixed. Ovary globose, ca 1 mm, glabrous; style stout, ca 3 mm long; stigma 2-lobed. Drupes globose, ca 0.7 cm, red; fruiting-calyx platelliform, ca 1 cm across, membranous, glabrous.
Flowering and fruiting: February-April
Vitex species flowers are complete, bisexual, i.e., with functional male (androecium) and female (gynoecium), including stamens, carpels and ovary. Pollination is entomophilous i.e., by insects. Flowering/Fruiting: March-September.
Seeds dispersed by anemochory i.e., wind dispersal, zoochory i.e., dispersal by birds or animals.
A tree about 20-50 ft tall, trunk girth 5-10 ft. Bark grayish brown, rough, irregularly fissured, inner bark yellowish brown about 2-3 cm thick, branchlets subterete or obtusely quadrangular, nodes annulate, young parts pubescent. Leaves palmately compound with 3 foliolate, rarely more, leaflets lanceolate-oblong or lanceolate-elliptic or narrow elliptic, middle leaflet 10-22 × 2-5 cm across, lateral leaflets 8-16 x 2-4.5 cm across, petiolules 0.5-1.5 cm long, base cuneate or acuminate, margin entire or very slightly undulate, apex shallow acuminate, chartaceous, thick, dark green subglabrous above, minutely pubescent with minute round yellow resinous glands beneath, lateral veins 15-22 on either side of the midrib, subparallel, ascending obscure, impressed above, prominent beneath, reticulate veinlets, petiole slender, stout, pubescent, about 4-10 cm long. Inflorescence axillary panicles, dichotomously branched, about 20-30 cm long, peduncles, flattened, slender, obtusely quadrangular, about 6-12 cm long, bracts linear, pubescent, about 1 mm long, Flowers bisexual, numerous, pedicels 1-2 mm long, Calyx campanulate, minutely 5 toothed, teeth acute, with circular yellow glands outside, Corolla infundibular, 5 lobed, 2-lipped, cream or yellow, upper lip 2-lobed, obovate, apex truncate, lower lip 3 lobed, midlobes suborbicular, obovate, apex obtuse, lower lobe, apex acute, more than twice larger than the other lobes, Corolla tube narrow, pubescent at throat, glabrous outside about 2 x 2 mm across. Stamens 4, didynamous, included, filaments slender, filiform, purple, about 2-3 mm long, anthers oblong, 2-celled, Ovary bicarpellary, 4 lobed, obovoid, style slender, longer than the stamens, stigma bilobed, subulate. Fruit drupaceous, globose, about 0.5-0.7 cm in diameter, green, red, black when ripe, fruiting calyx platelliform, membranous, seeds oblong, nonendospermous.
Susceptible to insect pests.
Notes: Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Dry Deciduous Forests
Moist deciduous forests near streams
Deciduous forests along streams and rocky slopes at an altitude up to 3300 ft.
Karnataka: N. Kanara
Kerala: Malapuram, Pathanamthitta
Tamil Nadu: Dharmapuri, Nilgiri, Tiruchchirappalli
State - Kerala, District/s: Pathanamthitta, Malappuram, Wayanad
Local Distribution: Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal.
Global Distribution: Asia: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam.
Bark and leaves used to treat diabetes, malaria and jaundice. Roots used to treat excessive menstrual bleeding. Wood used for building construction, agricultural implements etc.
Not evaluated (IUCN).
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