|Scientific Name||Ailanthus triphysa (Dennst.) Alston|
|Synonym||Ailanthus malabarica DC|
|Malayalam||Pongallyam, Perumarom, Perumaram, Pongilium, Dhup, Mattipala, Matti, Mattipal|
|Others||Pongilium, Matti, Perumaram|
Flowering class: Dicot
Tall trees up to 15 m tall.
Bark greyish, lenticellate; blaze yellow with red speckles.
Young branchlets terete, with scars of fallen leaves; apical bud tomentose.
Leaves compound, imparipinnate, alternate, spiral, crowded towards twig ends, to 1 m long; rachis pulvinate, subterete, glabrous; petiolule 0.3-0.7 cm long, glabrous; leaflets 11-21, alternate or suboppoiste, increasing size towards apex, 5-14 x 3-5 cm, elliptic-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, apex acute or acuminate, base asymetric, margin entire and revolute, glaucous, tomentose beneath when young, later glabrous; midrib raised above; secondary nerves 8-16 pairs, glands present at the fork near margin; tertiary nerves broadly reticulate.
Inflorescence terminal or axillary, branched panicles, drooping; flowers small, polygamous, greenish-yellow; pedicel ca. 0.2 cm long.
Samara, with large membranouos wings; seed one, pendulous.
Lofty deciduous trees, to 30 m high, bark grey, smooth, lenticellate; blaze pale yellow with reddish-brown sclerotic granules. Leaves imparipinnate, alternate, crowded towards the apex of branches, estipulate; rachis 26.5-52.5 cm long, stout, slightly ridged above, glabrous, swollen at base; leaflets 11-23, opposite or subopposite; petiolule 5-10 mm, slender, glabrous, ridged above; lamina 8.5-17 x 2-6.5 cm, oblong-ovate, oblong-lanceolate or elliptic to lanceolate, base oblique, apex acute or acuminate, margin entire, revolute, glabrous, coriaceous; lateral nerves 8-16 pairs, pinnate, prominent, intercostae reticulate, prominent. Flowers polygamous, greenish-yellow, in axillary panicles; male flowers: sepal 5, ovate, acute, pubescent, imbricate; petals 5, erect, glabrous, valvate; disc 10-lobed; stamens 10; anthers ovate; pistillode rudimentary, cordate; bisexual flowers: sepals and petals as in male flowers; stamens 2 or 3; disc 10-lobed; ovary 5 partite, superior, ovule 1 in each cell; style connate; stigmas plumose. Fruit a samara, 1-5, oblong, 5-6 x 1.5-2.5 cm, prominently veined, not twisted, reddish-brown with rounded ends.
Habit: Shrub or Small Tree
Flowering and fruiting: January-May
Trees along margin of evergreen to semi-evergreen forests up to 1000 m; often planted.
Notes: Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Moist Deciduous Forests
Semi-evergreen forests, also planted in the plains
Maharashtra: Kolhapur, Pune, Raigad, Ratnagiri, Satara
Kerala: All districts
Tamil Nadu: Coimbatore, Dindigul, Madurai, Nilgiri, Salem, Theni, Tiruchchirappalli, Tirunelveli
Indo-Malesia and Australia
State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts
Indomalaysia and Australia; in the Western Ghats- throughout.